– रामप्रसाद प्रसाई
Tomorrow’s battles must be fought today
For today’s battles were lost yesterday
The poetics has been entered into the flux of politics and every text into the context. So, every text is contextual or meaning comes out of contexts. Every text brings and bears multidimensional vantage points and pluralistic vistas of life, social times, zeitgeist, epochal realities and zest for life, words and vast and volatile worldly phenomenon.
Cultural studies has played vital role in the field of writings. The issues of identity, identity politics, politics of representation and question of marginality and peripheral portion of humanity are enlisted in the movement of postmodern literature. With globalization of theory and interdisciplinary studies Nepali literature (literatures) cannot remain untouched.
Ethnic and Ecological writing is an integral part and correlative each other in this time. We have to consider between the binary of ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ where the perspective of eco-feminism then the concept of eco-criticism has been interspersed each other. ‘Nature’ has been adversely affected by ‘culture’ as ‘male’ does to ‘female’ respectively in social system and eco-system.
Environment means cultural and natural aspects of our surroundings. Humanity, culture and nature are always on its own flux. The context for the time is reading an eco-poem. Reading the poet of our time Samadarshi Kainla and his recent poem entitled as “चेक्ताको विनिर्माण परिवृत्तीय सिँढी” in Nepali. The very poem can be read, reread and interpreted on different levels and layers of critical interpretation. But, here it falls into the category of eco-poem. It has painted the very canvas with the help of the ecotone, ecocriticism and ecopoetics. The poem has tried to depict an optimum relationship between writing and ecology. Nature and ethnicity are associated with each other since the time of immemorial. The slight variation on their proportion brings troubles in environment and society. The encroachment of their lines of demarcation yields detrimental scenario in relational harmony of balanced eco-system and biosphere.
Our working definition of “ecopoetry” is flexible; it includes not only what might be called nature poetry, and not only poetry that focuses on environmental issues, but also experimental poetry–poetry that explores language in its relations with the other-than-human. The term ‘ecopoetry’ has come into recent, popular use as a means of denoting poetry with a strong ecological emphasis or message. Naturally, across the ages, many poets, poems and books of poems have expressed ecological concerns; but it is only relatively recently that the neologism has gained momentum and acceptability. There is now, in English-speaking poetry, a recognisable sub-genre of poetry having a distinctively eco-poetic thrust.
Ethnopoetics must necessarily be included in a complete ecopoetics, as humans are an integral part of the ecology. In a sense, ecopoetics is an ecotone between these disciplines, between ecology, poetry, and ethnopoetics; ecopoetics addresses itself to the concerns of the theory and praxis of deliberate earthlings.
On one hand, Samadarshi Kainla, being one of the postmodern poets in our literature, he is talking about ecological and sociopolitical colonization, while on the other, he intimates at a concept that seems central to the discussion: the postmodern sublime. Post-coloniality on ecological basis can be another interpretation to apply in this poem too.
As Kainla goes as:
पारिस्थिकी अभियन्ताको वक्तव्य ‘साइलेन्ट स्प्रिङ‘को एक उदासिलो बिहान
Kaila’s poem begins with the sense of ecological sensibility. The universe has been filthy filled with CO2.It has been created havoc on the global environmental problem. Environment has a proximal kinship and near attachment with ecology.
Human existence has fallen prey on the hands of chemicals, industrial outcomes and other unwanted hazards. Poetic responsibility for society, culture, nature and human civilization is genuinely appreciated here.
Silent Spring (1962), a book written by Rachel Carson which is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement. The book argued that uncontrolled and unexamined pesticide use was harming and even killing not only animals and birds, but also humans. Its title was meant to evoke a spring season in which no bird songs could be heard, because they had all vanished as a result of pesticide abuse. Carson’s Silent Spring, which in 1962 exposed the hazards of the pesticide DDT, eloquently questioned humanity’s faith in technological progress and helped set the stage for the environmental movement. Carson’s Silent Spring, which in 1962 exposed the hazards of the pesticide DDT, eloquently questioned humanity’s faith in technological progress and helped set the stage for the environmental movement. Ethnopoetics must necessarily be included in a complete ecopoetics, as humans are an integral part of the ecology.
The depth of Kainla’s understanding and wisdom has been culminated here. The contribution of Rachel Carson in the field of environmental preservation and a lesson to humanity has been captured here. The poem is a eulogy to Carson and unfortunately an elegy on the degraded face and fact of environs, flora and fauna.
निगुरो खोज्ने तिगेनजोङ्ना !निगुरोको मुन्टाहरु मान्छेहरुले खाइसके,
मान्छेहरुलाई बाघले खाइसक्यो र सक्योकि अब मैले जङ्गबहादुरले देखेको सेतो बाघलाई खानुपर्दछ
ताकि निगुरोको जीवन स्वतन्त्र परिस्फुरण हुन पाओस् पृथ्वीको चेपचापमा मानवेतर स्वायत्त राज्यमा, रचेल कास्रनको ‘साइलेन्ट स्प्रिङ‘को एक उदासिलो बिहान !
Ecological niche brings a point of equilibrium and balance of different series and aspects of an ecosphere. It prepares a level of reconciliatory co-existence. It describes the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem to each other; e.g. a dolphin could potentially be in another ecological niche from one that travels in a different pod if the members of these pods utilize significantly different food resources and foraging methods.A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey. One of the poems written by Basanta Lohani sounds meaningful here.
“Nature seeks balance
In the golden mean
The fittest survive
And the weakest die.”
खोज्ने चेपाङबाजे !मौरीहरुलाई मान्छेहरुले धपाइसके,
मान्छेहरुलाई जडत्वको अरिङ्गालले धपाइसके,’”म अब ठेकीआरीबनाएर यत्रो परिवार पाल्न सक्दिन”
कि अब मैले जडत्वको अरिङ्गाललाई धपाउनु पर्दछ ताकि भीरैभीरको रङ्गमा मौरीहरु मनमाफिक रजाइँ गर्न पाओस् !
The ecopoem must connect to the culture and society that it inhabits. Culture is a product of evolution; it is a product of non-human nature, yet we recognize it as our own, human product. The ecopoem must contend with this paradox; it must connect here. Culture means Non-human nature. It is around these indissoluble differences that ecopoetics searches for the transitional phases, the ecotones, the shifting boundaries that yield language, insight, struggle. We are natural beings building cities as naturally as bees build hives. Unlike the bee, however, we are aware of the hives we build, why we built them, how they connect, intellectually, to other hives, other people. Also unlike the bee, when we look to other creatures, we understand that we cannot know them. Thus, the differences swirl back up to surround us and the search for poetry begins again.
Ecology, ecological colonialism, postcolonial concepts are prevalent here. Chepang baje and Bhir Mauri are integral parts of nature and its balanced eco-system. They are parts of our society, politics, policies, culture, and ethnic identification. The poem has spoken silent revolution and mild revolt against essentialism, puritanical tradition and scholastic colonialism through thematised vivacity and vibrancy.
बेच्ने चुनारेकाइँला !जङ्ललाई मान्छेहरुले मासिसके,
मान्छेहरुलाई अनावृष्टिले मासिसक्यो,”म अब चिउरीको बोट छोरीबेटीलाई दाइजो दिन सक्दिन”
कि अब मैले अनावृष्टिलाई मास्नु पर्दछ ताकि रुखहरु नाभो रुखहरु नाङ्गो पाखापर्वतभरि सार्वभौमसत्तासम्पन्न भएर उमि्रयोस् !
चराको गुँड खोज्नेस्कूले भुराभुरीहरु ! हाँस,चातक
र बकुल्ला चराहरुले भीरको छेउमाआत्महत्या गरिसके,चराहरुलाई मान्छेहरुले
सिकार गरिसके,मान्छेलाई पर्यावरणीयइतर संचेतनालेसिकार गरिक्यो र सक्यो कि अब मैले पर्यावरणीयइतर
संचेतनालाई सिकार गर्नु पर्दछ ताकि पारिस्थितिक प्रणाली सहरा मरुभूमिको अनि मधेस पहाड र सिमसारको पनि समानान्तर /सहअस्तित्व/ सहस्राब्दी हुन सकोस् !
दुवाली थापेरविषादि हालेर
माछा मार्ने पाराङ दाइ !खोला सुक्दै सुक्दै गएको छ,
गाउँलाई निर्जलन भएको छ,पृथ्वीको आत नै सुकिसकेको ‘बापतको
भान‘को बेला आजकाल मेरो सपनामा सधैं- सधंैनित्से रुन्छ, कराउँछ मसित आएर घाप्से हालेर भन्छ-
”धर्तीले नै मलाई जन्म दियो,मरेपछि पनि धर्तीमै फर्केर आराम गर्नचाहान्छु,यसैले साथीहरु हो ! मेरा लागि पनि यो धरतीलाई माया गर्नुहोला” सालसालै
सुक्दै गएको निबुखोलाको परिघोषले मौनभाषामा यही भन्छ मलाई ओइलिदै गएकोभीरको काप कापमा फुलेका सुनाखरीका सुकुमारी फूलहरुले यसै भन्छन् मलाई मिक्चिरीका वनफूलहरुले मलाई पनि स्वागतम्को माला लगाइदिन आतुर छन् साइलेन्ट स्प्रिङको एक बिहान !
The poet has become the genuine mouthpiece of nature, ecology, ethnicity, civilizational continuum. The awareness to culture and nature has been highly admired through this poem. “Love to ecology. Love to ecosystem. Relationship between two in harmonious way.” It could be the motto of this poem.
अक्साइडको अन्धकूपमा पारिस्थिकी अभियन्ताको वक्तव्य
‘साइलेन्ट स्प्रिङ‘को एक उदासिलो बिहान!
The repetition (refrain) of first and last stanza has emphasized the internal and external harmony of ecology, economy and sociopolitical aspects.
नोभेम्बर ८ सन् २०१०
कालीखोला -२(तेम्बोक), ताप्लेजुङ्ग, नेपालअबुधाबी श्रमशिविरबाट।